Avoiding New Poverty: Mining-Induced Displacement and Resettlement
The problem of mining-induced displacement and resettlement (MIDR) poses major risks to societal sustainability. Unfortunately, no global survey has assessed the scale of MIDR. Available evidence suggests that the problem is significant. Mining displaced 2.55 million people in India between 1950 and 1990. The likelihood that MIDR will be a significant issue increases as eight factors converge—as rich mineral deposits are found in areas with relatively low land acquisition costs (in the global market) that are being exploited with open-cast mining and are located in regions of high population density—especially on fertile and urban lands—with poor definitions of land tenure and politically weak and powerless populations, especially indigenous peoples.